Bibliografia

Una lista sintetica delle principali fonti bibliografiche nazionali e internazionali utilizzate per approfondire le nostre storie.

Testi di ampio respiro

Craighead, J. D., J. J. Craighead, J. S. Sumner, and J. A. Mitchell.  1995.  The Grizzly Bears of Yellowstone: Their Ecology in the Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1959-1992. Island Press, Washington, D.C, USA.

Fundación Oso Pardo. 2008. El Oso Cantábrico. Impreso en España, Spain.

Mustoni A. 2004. L’orso bruno sulle Alpi. Nitida oikos, Trento, Italy.

Penteriani, V. and M. Melletti, editors. 2020. Bears of the World: Ecology, Conservation and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Powell, R.A., J.W. Zimmerman, D. E. Seaman, and C. Powell. 1996. Ecology and Behaviour of North American Black Bears: Home Ranges, Habitat and Social Organization. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin, Germany.

Thompson, R. 2018. No Word for Wilderness: Italy’s Grizzlies and the Race to Save the Rarest Bears on Earth. Ashland Creek Press, Ashland, Oregon, USA.

Zeni M. 2016. In nome dell’orso. Il declino e il ritorno dell’orso bruno sulle Alpi. Storia, cronaca, conflitti e sfide. Il Piviere, Gavi, Italy.

Zibordi F. 2017. Gli orsi delle Alpi. Chi sono e come vivono. Blu edizioni, Torino, Italy.

Zunino F. 1976. Orso bruno marsicano: risultati di una ricerca sull’ecologia della specie. WWF-Italy, editor., SOS Fauna in pericolo in Italia, Roma, Italy.

Articoli scientifici e testi tematici

CHI È L’ORSO

Anijalg, P. et al. 2018. Large-scale migrations of brown bears in Eurasia and to North America during the Late Pleistocene. Journal of Biogeography 45:394–405.

Benazzo, A., E. et al. 2017. Survival and divergence in a small group: The extraordinary genomic history of the endangered Apennine brown bear stragglers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114:E9589–E9597.

Ciucci, P., E. Tosoni, G. Di Domenico, F. Quattrociocchi, and L. Boitani. 2014. Seasonal and annual variation in the food habits of Apennine brown bears, central Italy. Journal of Mammalogy 95:572–586.

Ciucci, P., S. Mancinelli, L. Boitani, O. Gallo, and L. Grottoli. 2020. Anthropogenic food subsidies hinder the ecological role of wolves: Insights for conservation of apex predators in human-modified landscapes. Global Ecology and Conservation 21.

Ciucci, P., T. et al. 2017. Distribution of the brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in the central apennines, Italy, 2005–2014. Hystrix 28.

Colangelo, P., A. Loy, D. Huber, T. Gomerčić, A. Vigna Taglianti, and P. Ciucci. 2012. Cranial distinctiveness in the Apennine brown bear: Genetic drift effect or ecophenotypic adaptation? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107:15–26.

Coogan, S. C. P., and D. Raubenheimer. 2016. Might macronutrient requirements influence grizzly bear-human conflict? Insights from nutritional geometry. Ecosphere 7:1–15.

Coogan, S. C. P., D. Raubenheimer, G. B. Stenhouse, N. C. Coops, and S. E. Nielsen. 2018. Functional macronutritional generalism in a large omnivore, the brown bear. Ecology and Evolution 8:2365–2376.

Costello, C. M., S. L. Cain, S. Pils, L. Frattaroli, M. A. Haroldson, and F. T. Van Manen. 2016. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears. PLoS ONE 11:1–22.

Dahle, B., A. Zedrosser, and J. E. Swenson. 2006. Correlates with body size and mass in yearling brown bears (Ursus arctos). Journal of Zoology 269:273–283.

Erlenbach, J. A., K. D. Rode, D. Raubenheimer, and C. T. Robbins. 2014. Macronutrient optimization and energy maximization determine diets of brown bears. Journal of Mammalogy 95:160–168.

Evans, A. L., N. J. Singh, A. Friebe, J. M. Arnemo, T. G. Laske, O. Fröbert, J. E. Swenson, and S. Blanc. 2016. Drivers of hibernation in the brown bear. Frontiers in Zoology 13:7.

Evans, Alina L., N. J. Singh, B. Fuchs, S. Blanc, A. Friebe, T. G. Laske, O. Frobert, J. E. Swenson, and J. M. Arnemo. 2016. Physiological reactions to capture in hibernating brown bears. Conservation Physiology 4:1–11.

Felicetti, L. A., C. T. Robbins, and L. A. Shipley. 2003. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76:256–261.

Fortin, J. K., C. C. Schwartz, K. A. Gunther, J. E. Teisberg, M. A. Haroldson, M. A. Evans, and C. T. Robbins. 2013. Dietary adjustability of grizzly bears and American black bears in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 77:270–281.

Friebe, A., A. L. Evans, J. M. Arnemo, S. Blanc, S. Brunberg, G. Fleissner, J. E. Swenson, and A. Zedrosser. 2014. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears. PLoS ONE 9.

González-Bernardo, E., L. F. Russo, E. Valderrábano, Á. Fernández, and V. Penteriani. 2020. Denning in brown bears. Ecology and Evolution 10:1-19.

Hilderbrand, G. V., D. D. Gustine, B. A. Mangipane, K. Joly, W. Leacock, L. S. Mangipane, J. Erlenbach, M. S. Sorum, M. D. Cameron, J. L. Belant, and T. Cambier. 2018. Body size and lean mass of brown bears across and within four diverse ecosystems. Journal of Zoology 305:53–62.

Falco, M. 2020.  Modelling habitat suitability accounting for forest structure and dynamics:Apennine brown bear as a case study.  Tesi di Dottorato, Università “ La Sapienza”, Roma, IT.

Iwaniuk, A. N., S. M. Pellis, and I. Q. Whishaw. 1999. The relationship between forelimb morphology and behaviour in North American carnivores (Carnivora). Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1064–1074.

Jiangzuo, Q., and J. J. Flynn. 2020. The Earliest Ursine Bear Demonstrates the Origin of Plant-Dominated Omnivory in Carnivora. iScience 23:101235.

Kumar, V., F. Lammers, T. Bidon, M. Pfenninger, L. Kolter, M. A. Nilsson, and A. Janke. 2017. The evolutionary history of bears is characterized by gene flow across species. Scientific Reports 7:1–10.

Laske, T. G., D. L. Garshelis, and P. A. Iaizzo. 2011a. Monitoring the wild black bear’s reaction to human and environmental stressors. BMC Physiology 11:13.

López-Alfaro, C., C. T. Robbins, A. Zedrosser, and S. E. Nielsen. 2013. Energetics of hibernation and reproductive trade-offs in brown bears. Ecological Modelling 270:1–10.

Loy, A., P. Genov, M. Galfo, M. G. Jacobone, and A. V. Taglianti. 2008. Cranial morphometrics of the Apennine brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) and preliminary notes on the relationships with other southern European populations. Italian Journal of Zoology 75:67–75.

Mattson, D.J. 1997c. Use of ungulates by Yellowstone grizzly bears Ursus arctos. Biological Conservation. 81: 161-177.

McLellan, B. N. 2011. Implications of a high-energy and low-protein diet on the body composition, fitness, and competitive abilities of black (Ursus americanus) and grizzly (Ursus arctos) bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89:546–558.

Meloro, C., and A. M. de Oliveira. 2019. Elbow Joint Geometry in Bears (Ursidae, Carnivora): a Tool to Infer Paleobiology and Functional Adaptations of Quaternary Fossils. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 26:133–146.

Meloro, C., G. Guidarelli, P. Colangelo, P. Ciucci, and A. Loy. 2017. Mandible size and shape in extant Ursidae (Carnivora, Mammalia): A tool for taxonomy and ecogeography. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research:55.

Mugahid, D. A., et al. 2019. Proteomic and Transcriptomic Changes in Hibernating Grizzly Bears Reveal Metabolic and Signaling Pathways that Protect against Muscle Atrophy. Scientific Reports 9:1–16.

Nelson, R. A., G. E. Folk, E. W. Pfeiffer, J. J. Craighead, C. J. Jonkel, and D. L. Steiger. 1983. Behavior, Biochemistry, and Hibernation in Black, Grizzly, and Polar Bears. Bears: Their Biology and Management 5:284.

Nielsen, S. E., M. R. L. Cattet, J. Boulanger, J. Cranston, G. J. McDermid, A. B. A. Shafer, and G. B. Stenhouse. 2013. Environmental, biological and anthropogenic effects on grizzly bear body size: Temporal and spatial considerations. BMC Ecology 13:1.

Noyce, K. V., P. B. Kannowski, and M. R. Riggs. 1997. Black bears as ant-eaters: Seasonal associations between bear myrmecophagy and ant ecology in north-central Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75:1671–1686.

Pritchard, G. T., and C. T. Robbins. 1990. Digestive and metabolic efficiencies of grizzly and black bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:1645–1651.

Rey-Iglesia, A., A. García-Vázquez, E. C. Treadaway, J. van der Plicht, G. F. Baryshnikov, P. Szpak, H. Bocherens, G. G. Boeskorov, and E. D. Lorenzen. 2019. Evolutionary history and palaeoecology of brown bear in North-East Siberia re-examined using ancient DNA and stable isotopes from skeletal remains. Scientific Reports 9:1–12.

Reynolds-Hogland, M. J., L. B. Pacifici, and M. S. Mitchell. 2007. Linking resources with demography to understand resource limitation for bears. Journal of Applied Ecology 44:1166–1175.

Rigano, K. S., J. L. Gehring, B. D. Evans Hutzenbiler, A. V. Chen, O. L. Nelson, C. A. Vella, C. T. Robbins, and H. T. Jansen. 2017. Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bears. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 187:649–676.

Robbins, T., C., J. K. Fortin, K. D. Rode, S. D. Farley, L. A. Shipley, and L. A. Felicetti. 2007. Optimizing protein intake as a foraging strategy to maximize mass gain in an omnivore. Oikos 116:1675–1682.

Rode, K. D., and C. T. Robbins. 2000. Why bears consume mixed diets during fruit abundance. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1640–1645.

Rode, K. D., C. T. Robbins, and L. A. Shipley. 2001. Constraints on herbivory by grizzly bears. Oecologia 128:62–71.

Rodríguez, C., J. Naves, A. Fernández-Gil, J. R. Obeso, and M. Delibes. 2007. Long-term trends in food habits of a relict brown bear population in northern Spain: The influence of climate and local factors. Environmental Conservation 34:36–44.

Sahlén, V., A. Friebe, S. Sæbø, J. E. Swenson, and O. G. Støen. 2015. Den entry behavior in Scandinavian brown bears: Implications for preventing human injuries. Journal of Wildlife Management 79:274–287.

Seger, R. L., F. A. Servello, R. A. Cross, and D. H. Keisler. 2013. Body mass and mast abundance influence foraging ecology of the American black bear (Ursus Americanus) in Maine. Canadian Journal of Zoology 91:512–522.

Shine, C. L., C. T. Robbins, O. L. Nelson, and C. P. McGowan. 2017. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) locomotion: Forelimb joint mechanics across speed in the sagittal and frontal planes. Journal of Experimental Biology 220:1322–1329.

Spady, T. J., D. G. Lindburg, and B. S. Durrant. 2007. Evolution of reproductive seasonality in bears. Mammal Review 37:21–53.

Stenvinkel, P., A. H. Jani, and R. J. Johnson. 2013a. Hibernating bears (Ursidae): Metabolic magicians of definite interest for the nephrologist. Kidney International 83:207–212.

Swenson, J. E., A. Jansson, R. Riig, and F. Sandegren. 1999. Bears and ants: Myrmecophagy by brown bears in central Scandinavia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:551–561.

Swenson, J. E., F. Sandegren, S. Brunberg, and P. Wabakken. 1997. Winter den abandonment by brown bears Ursus arctos: Causes and consequences. Wildlife Biology 3:35–38.

Swenson, J. E., M. Adamič, D. Huber, and S. Stokke. 2007. Brown bear body mass and growth in northern and southern Europe. Oecologia 153:37–47.

Tosoni, E., M. Mei, and P. Ciucci. 2018. Ants as food for Apennine brown bears. The European Zoological Journal 85:342–348.

Tosoni, E.  2010.  Indagini ecologiche relative alla popolazione di orso bruno ( Ursus arctos marsicanus) nel territorio del Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise. Tesi di Dottorato, Università “ La Sapienza”, Roma, IT.

Tumendemberel, O., A. Zedrosser, M. F. Proctor, H. V. Reynolds, J. R. Adams, J. M. Sullivan, S. J. Jacobs, T. Khorloojav, T. Tserenbataa, M. Batmunkh, J. E. Swenson, and L. P. Waits. 2019. Phylogeography, genetic diversity, and connectivity of brown bear populations in Central Asia. PLoS ONE 14:1–23.

Wang, X., N. Rybczynski, C. R. Harington, S. C. White, and R. H. Tedford. 2017. A basal ursine bear (Protarctos abstrusus) from the Pliocene High Arctic reveals Eurasian affinities and a diet rich in fermentable sugars. Scientific Reports 7:1–14.

Welch, C. A., J. Keay, K. C. Kendall, and C. T. Robbins. 1997. Constraints on frugivory by bears. Ecology 78:1105–1119.

DOVE VIVE

Anijalg, P. et al. 2018. Large-scale migrations of brown bears in Eurasia and to North America during the Late Pleistocene. Journal of Biogeography 45:394–405.

Benazzo, A., E. et al. 2017. Survival and divergence in a small group: The extraordinary genomic history of the endangered Apennine brown bear stragglers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114:E9589–E9597.

Ciucci, P., E. Tosoni, G. Di Domenico, F. Quattrociocchi, and L. Boitani. 2014. Seasonal and annual variation in the food habits of Apennine brown bears, central Italy. Journal of Mammalogy 95:572–586.

Ciucci, P., S. Mancinelli, L. Boitani, O. Gallo, and L. Grottoli. 2020. Anthropogenic food subsidies hinder the ecological role of wolves: Insights for conservation of apex predators in human-modified landscapes. Global Ecology and Conservation 21.

Ciucci, P., T. et al. 2017. Distribution of the brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in the central apennines, Italy, 2005–2014. Hystrix 28.

Colangelo, P., A. Loy, D. Huber, T. Gomerčić, A. Vigna Taglianti, and P. Ciucci. 2012. Cranial distinctiveness in the Apennine brown bear: Genetic drift effect or ecophenotypic adaptation? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107:15–26.

Coogan, S. C. P., and D. Raubenheimer. 2016. Might macronutrient requirements influence grizzly bear-human conflict? Insights from nutritional geometry. Ecosphere 7:1–15.

Coogan, S. C. P., D. Raubenheimer, G. B. Stenhouse, N. C. Coops, and S. E. Nielsen. 2018. Functional macronutritional generalism in a large omnivore, the brown bear. Ecology and Evolution 8:2365–2376.

Costello, C. M., S. L. Cain, S. Pils, L. Frattaroli, M. A. Haroldson, and F. T. Van Manen. 2016. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears. PLoS ONE 11:1–22.

Dahle, B., A. Zedrosser, and J. E. Swenson. 2006. Correlates with body size and mass in yearling brown bears (Ursus arctos). Journal of Zoology 269:273–283.

Erlenbach, J. A., K. D. Rode, D. Raubenheimer, and C. T. Robbins. 2014. Macronutrient optimization and energy maximization determine diets of brown bears. Journal of Mammalogy 95:160–168.

Evans, A. L., N. J. Singh, A. Friebe, J. M. Arnemo, T. G. Laske, O. Fröbert, J. E. Swenson, and S. Blanc. 2016. Drivers of hibernation in the brown bear. Frontiers in Zoology 13:7.

Evans, Alina L., N. J. Singh, B. Fuchs, S. Blanc, A. Friebe, T. G. Laske, O. Frobert, J. E. Swenson, and J. M. Arnemo. 2016. Physiological reactions to capture in hibernating brown bears. Conservation Physiology 4:1–11.

Felicetti, L. A., C. T. Robbins, and L. A. Shipley. 2003. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76:256–261.

Fortin, J. K., C. C. Schwartz, K. A. Gunther, J. E. Teisberg, M. A. Haroldson, M. A. Evans, and C. T. Robbins. 2013. Dietary adjustability of grizzly bears and American black bears in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 77:270–281.

Friebe, A., A. L. Evans, J. M. Arnemo, S. Blanc, S. Brunberg, G. Fleissner, J. E. Swenson, and A. Zedrosser. 2014. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears. PLoS ONE 9.

González-Bernardo, E., L. F. Russo, E. Valderrábano, Á. Fernández, and V. Penteriani. 2020. Denning in brown bears. Ecology and Evolution 10:1-19.

Hilderbrand, G. V., D. D. Gustine, B. A. Mangipane, K. Joly, W. Leacock, L. S. Mangipane, J. Erlenbach, M. S. Sorum, M. D. Cameron, J. L. Belant, and T. Cambier. 2018. Body size and lean mass of brown bears across and within four diverse ecosystems. Journal of Zoology 305:53–62.

Falco, M. 2020.  Modelling habitat suitability accounting for forest structure and dynamics:Apennine brown bear as a case study.  Tesi di Dottorato, Università “ La Sapienza”, Roma, IT.

Iwaniuk, A. N., S. M. Pellis, and I. Q. Whishaw. 1999. The relationship between forelimb morphology and behaviour in North American carnivores (Carnivora). Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1064–1074.

Jiangzuo, Q., and J. J. Flynn. 2020. The Earliest Ursine Bear Demonstrates the Origin of Plant-Dominated Omnivory in Carnivora. iScience 23:101235.

Kumar, V., F. Lammers, T. Bidon, M. Pfenninger, L. Kolter, M. A. Nilsson, and A. Janke. 2017. The evolutionary history of bears is characterized by gene flow across species. Scientific Reports 7:1–10.

Laske, T. G., D. L. Garshelis, and P. A. Iaizzo. 2011a. Monitoring the wild black bear’s reaction to human and environmental stressors. BMC Physiology 11:13.

López-Alfaro, C., C. T. Robbins, A. Zedrosser, and S. E. Nielsen. 2013. Energetics of hibernation and reproductive trade-offs in brown bears. Ecological Modelling 270:1–10.

Loy, A., P. Genov, M. Galfo, M. G. Jacobone, and A. V. Taglianti. 2008. Cranial morphometrics of the Apennine brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) and preliminary notes on the relationships with other southern European populations. Italian Journal of Zoology 75:67–75.

Mattson, D.J. 1997c. Use of ungulates by Yellowstone grizzly bears Ursus arctos. Biological Conservation. 81: 161-177.

McLellan, B. N. 2011. Implications of a high-energy and low-protein diet on the body composition, fitness, and competitive abilities of black (Ursus americanus) and grizzly (Ursus arctos) bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89:546–558.

Meloro, C., and A. M. de Oliveira. 2019. Elbow Joint Geometry in Bears (Ursidae, Carnivora): a Tool to Infer Paleobiology and Functional Adaptations of Quaternary Fossils. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 26:133–146.

Meloro, C., G. Guidarelli, P. Colangelo, P. Ciucci, and A. Loy. 2017. Mandible size and shape in extant Ursidae (Carnivora, Mammalia): A tool for taxonomy and ecogeography. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research:55.

Mugahid, D. A., et al. 2019. Proteomic and Transcriptomic Changes in Hibernating Grizzly Bears Reveal Metabolic and Signaling Pathways that Protect against Muscle Atrophy. Scientific Reports 9:1–16.

Nelson, R. A., G. E. Folk, E. W. Pfeiffer, J. J. Craighead, C. J. Jonkel, and D. L. Steiger. 1983. Behavior, Biochemistry, and Hibernation in Black, Grizzly, and Polar Bears. Bears: Their Biology and Management 5:284.

Nielsen, S. E., M. R. L. Cattet, J. Boulanger, J. Cranston, G. J. McDermid, A. B. A. Shafer, and G. B. Stenhouse. 2013. Environmental, biological and anthropogenic effects on grizzly bear body size: Temporal and spatial considerations. BMC Ecology 13:1.

Noyce, K. V., P. B. Kannowski, and M. R. Riggs. 1997. Black bears as ant-eaters: Seasonal associations between bear myrmecophagy and ant ecology in north-central Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75:1671–1686.

Pritchard, G. T., and C. T. Robbins. 1990. Digestive and metabolic efficiencies of grizzly and black bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:1645–1651.

Rey-Iglesia, A., A. García-Vázquez, E. C. Treadaway, J. van der Plicht, G. F. Baryshnikov, P. Szpak, H. Bocherens, G. G. Boeskorov, and E. D. Lorenzen. 2019. Evolutionary history and palaeoecology of brown bear in North-East Siberia re-examined using ancient DNA and stable isotopes from skeletal remains. Scientific Reports 9:1–12.

Reynolds-Hogland, M. J., L. B. Pacifici, and M. S. Mitchell. 2007. Linking resources with demography to understand resource limitation for bears. Journal of Applied Ecology 44:1166–1175.

Rigano, K. S., J. L. Gehring, B. D. Evans Hutzenbiler, A. V. Chen, O. L. Nelson, C. A. Vella, C. T. Robbins, and H. T. Jansen. 2017. Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bears. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 187:649–676.

Robbins, T., C., J. K. Fortin, K. D. Rode, S. D. Farley, L. A. Shipley, and L. A. Felicetti. 2007. Optimizing protein intake as a foraging strategy to maximize mass gain in an omnivore. Oikos 116:1675–1682.

Rode, K. D., and C. T. Robbins. 2000. Why bears consume mixed diets during fruit abundance. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1640–1645.

Rode, K. D., C. T. Robbins, and L. A. Shipley. 2001. Constraints on herbivory by grizzly bears. Oecologia 128:62–71.

Rodríguez, C., J. Naves, A. Fernández-Gil, J. R. Obeso, and M. Delibes. 2007. Long-term trends in food habits of a relict brown bear population in northern Spain: The influence of climate and local factors. Environmental Conservation 34:36–44.

Sahlén, V., A. Friebe, S. Sæbø, J. E. Swenson, and O. G. Støen. 2015. Den entry behavior in Scandinavian brown bears: Implications for preventing human injuries. Journal of Wildlife Management 79:274–287.

Seger, R. L., F. A. Servello, R. A. Cross, and D. H. Keisler. 2013. Body mass and mast abundance influence foraging ecology of the American black bear (Ursus Americanus) in Maine. Canadian Journal of Zoology 91:512–522.

Shine, C. L., C. T. Robbins, O. L. Nelson, and C. P. McGowan. 2017. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) locomotion: Forelimb joint mechanics across speed in the sagittal and frontal planes. Journal of Experimental Biology 220:1322–1329.

Spady, T. J., D. G. Lindburg, and B. S. Durrant. 2007. Evolution of reproductive seasonality in bears. Mammal Review 37:21–53.

Stenvinkel, P., A. H. Jani, and R. J. Johnson. 2013a. Hibernating bears (Ursidae): Metabolic magicians of definite interest for the nephrologist. Kidney International 83:207–212.

Swenson, J. E., A. Jansson, R. Riig, and F. Sandegren. 1999. Bears and ants: Myrmecophagy by brown bears in central Scandinavia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:551–561.

Swenson, J. E., F. Sandegren, S. Brunberg, and P. Wabakken. 1997. Winter den abandonment by brown bears Ursus arctos: Causes and consequences. Wildlife Biology 3:35–38.

Swenson, J. E., M. Adamič, D. Huber, and S. Stokke. 2007. Brown bear body mass and growth in northern and southern Europe. Oecologia 153:37–47.

Tosoni, E., M. Mei, and P. Ciucci. 2018. Ants as food for Apennine brown bears. The European Zoological Journal 85:342–348.

Tosoni, E.  2010.  Indagini ecologiche relative alla popolazione di orso bruno ( Ursus arctos marsicanus) nel territorio del Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise. Tesi di Dottorato, Università “ La Sapienza”, Roma, IT.

Tumendemberel, O., A. Zedrosser, M. F. Proctor, H. V. Reynolds, J. R. Adams, J. M. Sullivan, S. J. Jacobs, T. Khorloojav, T. Tserenbataa, M. Batmunkh, J. E. Swenson, and L. P. Waits. 2019. Phylogeography, genetic diversity, and connectivity of brown bear populations in Central Asia. PLoS ONE 14:1–23.

Wang, X., N. Rybczynski, C. R. Harington, S. C. White, and R. H. Tedford. 2017. A basal ursine bear (Protarctos abstrusus) from the Pliocene High Arctic reveals Eurasian affinities and a diet rich in fermentable sugars. Scientific Reports 7:1–14.

Welch, C. A., J. Keay, K. C. Kendall, and C. T. Robbins. 1997. Constraints on frugivory by bears. Ecology 78:1105–1119.

L’ORSO SOCIALE

Allen, M. L., L. M. Elbroch, C. C. Wilmers, and H. U. Wittmer. 2014. Trophic facilitation or limitation? Comparative effects of pumas and black bears on the scavenger community. PLoS ONE 9.

Dahle, B., O. G. Støen, and J. E. Swenson. 2006. Factors influencing home-range size in subadult brown bears. Journal of Mammalogy 87:859–865.

Dahle, Bjørn, and J. E. Swenson. 2003. Seasonal range size in relation to reproductive strategies in brown bears Ursus arctos. Journal of Animal Ecology 72:660–667.

Deacy, W. W., J. B. Armstrong, W. B. Leacock, C. T. Robbins, D. D. Gustine, E. J. Ward, J. A. Erlenbach, and J. A. Stanford. 2017. Phenological synchronization disrupts trophic interactions between Kodiak brown bears and salmon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114:10432–10437.

Delgado, M. M., et al. 2018. The seasonal sensitivity of brown bear denning phenology in response to climatic variability. Frontiers in Zoology 15:1.

Enders, M. S., and S. B. Vander Wall. 2012. Black bears Ursus americanus are effective seed dispersers, with a little help from their friends. Oikos 121:589–596.

Falco, M. 2020.  Modelling habitat suitability accounting for forest structure and dynamics:Apennine brown bear as a case study.  Tesi di Dottorato, Università “ La Sapienza”, Roma, IT.

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